Browsing by Author "Baadel, Said"
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ItemBioethics: A look at animal testing in medicine and cosmetics in the UK(Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 2019) Kabene, Stefane; Baadel, SaidUsing animals for cosmetics and medical tests has contributed towards a debate based on conflicting interests. Despite the efforts in justifying the value of animals in conducting analyses, this study seeks to elaborate whether or not it is rational to use animals as test subjects in medical and cosmetics fields. The value of animal life is at the core of the emotional conflicts that arise when animals become experimental subjects in medical and cosmetics fields. The aim of this study is to determine if there are ethical differences in the use of animal testing in medicine versus cosmetics. The research, through review and content analysis of the existing literature, compares and provides the outcomes of using animals in medical and cosmetics tests by examining studies conducted in the UK. The findings of this research indicated that animal testing is considered acceptable in the medical field only if there are no other alternatives, but is completely unacceptable in the cosmetics field. The study also provides recommendations in the form of alternatives that protect animals from cruelty and may benefit the different stakeholders and the society at large. © 2019 Medical Ethics and History of Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved. ItemA clustering approach for autistic trait classification(Taylor and Francis Ltd, 2020-07-02) Baadel, Said; Thabtah, Fadi; Lu, JoanMachine learning (ML) techniques can be utilized by physicians, clinicians, as well as other users, to discover Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) symptoms based on historical cases and controls to enhance autism screening efficiency and accuracy. The aim of this study is to improve the performance of detecting ASD traits by reducing data dimensionality and eliminating redundancy in the autism dataset. To achieve this, a new semi-supervised ML framework approach called Clustering-based Autistic Trait Classification (CATC) is proposed that uses a clustering technique and that validates classifiers using classification techniques. The proposed method identifies potential autism cases based on their similarity traits as opposed to a scoring function used by many ASD screening tools. Empirical results on different datasets involving children, adolescents, and adults were verified and compared to other common machine learning classification techniques. The results showed that CATC offers classifiers with higher predictive accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity rates than those of other intelligent classification approaches such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Random Forest, Random Trees, and Rule Induction. These classifiers are useful as they are exploited by diagnosticians and other stakeholders involved in ASD screening. © 2020 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. ItemClustering Countries According to Their Cultural Proximity and Similarity(Springer Science and Business Media B.V., 2017) Dankert, Angelika C.; Dekkiche, Hamoud; Baadel, Said; Kabene, Stefane M.Clustering countries mathematically according to Geert Hofstede’s cultural proximity and similarity factors is one way of classifying regional communities into well-defined cultural categories. Trying to test this statement mathematically shows that classifying countries or cultures remains complex. The approach shows a lack of an overall scheme and even when common variables exist, it seems that random and coincidental similarity weighs strongly on most variables used in the model. The results emphasize the need for more research in order to support the model. © 2017, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. ItemCybersecurity awareness: A critical analysis of education and law enforcement methods(Slovene Society Informatika, 2021) Baadel, Said; Thabtah, Fadi; Lu, JoanAccording to the international Anti-Phishing Work Group (APWG), phishing activities have abruptly risen over the last few years, and users are becoming more susceptible to online and mobile fraud. Machine Learning techniques have potential for building technical anti-phishing models, with a handful already implemented in the real time environment. However, majority of them have yet to be applied in a real time environment and require domain experts to interpret the results. This gives conventional techniques a vital role as supportive tools for a wider audience, especially novice users. This paper reviews in-depth, common, phishing countermeasures including legislation, law enforcement, hands-on training, and education among others. A complete prevention layer based on the aforementioned approaches is suggested to increase awareness and report phishing to different stakeholders, including organizations, novice users, researchers, and computer security experts. Therefore, these stakeholders can understand the upsides and downsides of the current conventional approaches and the ways forward for improving them. © 2021 Slovene Society Informatika. All rights reserved. ItemData analytics : intelligent anti-phishing techniques based on machine learning(World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte Ltd, 2019) Baadel, Said; Lu, JoanAccording to the international body Anti-Phishing Work Group (APWG), phishing activities have skyrocketed in the last few years and more online users are becoming susceptible to phishing attacks and scams. While many online users are vulnerable and naive to the phishing attacks, playing catch-up to the phishers' evolving strategies is not an option. Machine Learning techniques play a significant role in developing effective anti-phishing models. This paper looks at phishing as a classification problem and outlines some of the recent intelligent machine learning techniques (associative classifications, dynamic self-structuring neural network, dynamic rule-induction, etc.) in the literature that is used as anti-phishing models. The purpose of this review is to serve researchers, organisations' managers, computer security experts, lecturers, and students who are interested in understanding phishing and its corresponding intelligent solutions. This will equip individuals with knowledge and skills that may prevent phishing on a wider context within the community. © 2019 World Scientific Publishing Co. ItemExploratory study on the impact of game-based learning on student engagement(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2015) Yousef, Dima; Baadel, Said; Makad, RamaMotivating students has always been the main concern of seasoned and new teachers. This is evident as they plan their lessons meticulously to ensure that their students are actively engaged in some form of activity or preparing for a task. The purpose of the paper is to examine the advantages, obstacles, and impact of using games on student engagement and involvement throughout the learning process. The findings will reveal that game-based learning has a profound and positive outcome on student level of motivation, comprehension, and retention of newly taught concepts. © 2014 IEEE. ItemFacial recognition cane for the visually impaired(Springer Verlag, 2016) Majeed, Asim; Baadel, SaidThe modern era is accompanied by various traditional mobility aids which help visually impaired to stay independent and enabling them detecting the objects and scanning surroundings. The use of haptic touch, as well as ultrasound, is embedded in today’s smart canes which detect obstacles up to 3 m distance, GPS navigation, informs the user through Bluetooth and earpiece, and guide the visually impaired to direct from one location to another. The evolution of this technology has motivated the integration of inexpensive camera technology within the cane for facial recognition purposes. The concept of developing this intelligent smart cane which would detect obstacles from up to 10 m as well as recognises friends and family faces, was envisioned by students at Birmingham City University. The developments in this product and adopted technologies guide a visually impaired user to detect obstacles and to find an alternative route while at the same time try to recognize any family or friends within the vicinity. These have been reflected in this research paper along with the limitations and wider issues which may come up when adopting the high-tech advances. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016. ItemGlobal triumph or exploitation of security and privacy concerns in E-learning systems(Springer Verlag, 2016) Majeed, Asim; Baadel, Said; Haq, Anwar UlThis paper identifies the causes of privacy concerns which emerged when an educational institution launched an automated proctoring technology to examine E-Learners. In the modern era of information, privacy is an integral concern due to its fluid, dynamic and complex nature. In certain situations where it is very difficult to understand the privacy concerns, privacy is often misunderstood by the interactive systems designers. The qualitative data in this research was collected using content analysis approach from 120 online bloggers and useful insights were found; those that pertained to the privacy concerns for E-Learners. The findings revealed both practical and theoretical implications for both the institutions offering online courses and organization designing tools for proctoring. © Springer International Publishing AG 2016. ItemImpact of leadership style on sustainable innovation(Inderscience Enterprises Ltd., 2019) Kabene, Stefane; Baadel, Said; Attou, RafikIn a rapidly changing environment, innovation is essential in maintaining long-term survival of public and private organisations. The following paper used quantitative research with the aim of understanding the impact of global innovation index variables have on innovation in 64 countries. Single regression analysis was used to find correlations between global innovation index (II) and other indices such as government effectiveness index (GEI), gender inequality index (GII), cultural diversity index (CDI) among others in order to understand how the above variables affected and influence innovation in studied countries. Our study provides a concise explanation of the intricate relationship between transformational leadership and its impacts on innovative, modernised organisational culture, trickling down the hierarchal pyramid to both public and private sectors. This research will benefit the business community, governments, and different stakeholders to understanding what variables and leadership types are most effective and associative with innovation. Copyright © 2019 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. ItemInternet of everything (IoE) exploiting organisational inside threats : global network of smart devices (GNSD)(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016) Majeed, Asim; Haq, Anwar Ul; Jamal, Arshad; Bhana, Rehan; Banigo, Funke; Baadel, SaidVarious disruptive technologies have evolved a paradigm for setting up the Internet-of-Everything (IoE) and continuous evolution of technologies has demanded those devices to communicate and exchange information with each other. The marketing research company Gartner has surveyed and estimated that around 30 billion devices would be interconnected and exchanging information by 2020. The IoE is accompanied by several substantial opportunities in all fields of life, ranging from the energy sector to the healthcare industry. The trail of IoE development has opened new doors of attack vectors. The evolution in the plethora of ubiquitous devices has raised several insider threats, thus generating concerns of security and privacy within enterprises who have framed the use of smart devices through IoE. This paper discusses a different perspective of security and privacy issues in IoE by considering insiders bringing personal smart devices to use within the enterprise. The central theme of this research is to identify the challenges and explore the extent of security and privacy issues a global network of smart devices could exacerbate within the enterprise. © 2016 IEEE. ItemManagerial Recruitment Issues in China: The Expatriate Factor(Springer Science and Business Media B.V., 2017) Kabene, Stefane; Baadel, SaidWith China becoming the world’s largest economy, it must somehow manage the existing human capital. The problem lies in the lack of managerial talent currently located in China. This paper attempts to look how China is currently recruiting managers and examines the factors hindering the recruitment of Chinese-born and expatriate managers. China is recruiting managers using the same methods as the Western world. However, a strong emphasis is put on a factor known as guanxi. The shortage of Chinese-born managers can be attributed to financial reasons and the lack of education and government commitment. China’s culture is a major factor hindering the success of expatriates as well as the organizational structure in China because of the socialist culture. These issues must be addressed to attract managers into China to successfully compete in a globalized economy. © 2017, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. ItemMCOKE: Multi-Cluster Overlapping K-Means Extension Algorithm(World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 2015) Baadel, Said; Thabtah, Fadi; Lu, JoanClustering involves the partitioning of n objects into k clusters. Many clustering algorithms use hard-partitioning techniques where each object is assigned to one cluster. In this paper we propose an overlapping algorithm MCOKE which allows objects to belong to one or more clusters. The algorithm is different from fuzzy clustering techniques because objects that overlap are assigned a membership value of 1 (one) as opposed to a fuzzy membership degree. The algorithm is also different from other overlapping algorithms that require a similarity threshold be defined a priori which can be difficult to determine by novice users. ItemOMCOKE: A Machine Learning Outlier-based Overlapping Clustering Technique for Multi-Label Data Analysis(Slovene Society Informatika, 2022-11) Baadel, Said; Thabtah, Fadi; Lu, Joan; Harguem, SaidaClustering is one of the challenging machine learning techniques due to its unsupervised learning nature. While many clustering algorithms constrain objects to single clusters, K-means overlapping partitioning clustering methods assign objects to multiple clusters by relaxing the constraints and allowing objects to belong to more than one cluster to better fit hidden structures in the data. However, when datasets contain outliers, they can significantly influence the mean distance of the data objects to their respective clusters, which is a drawback. Therefore, most researchers address this problem by simply removing the outliers. This can be problematic especially in applications such as fraud detection or cybersecurity attacks risk analysis. In this study, an alternative solution to this problem is proposed that captures outliers and stores them on-the-fly within a new cluster, instead of discarding. The new algorithm is named Outlier-based Multi-Cluster Overlapping K-Means Extension (OMCOKE). Empirical results on real-life multi-label datasets were derived to compare OMCOKE’s performance with other common overlapping clustering techniques. The results show that OMCOKE produced a better precision rate compared to the considered clustering algorithms. This method can benefit various stakeholders as these outliers could have real-life applications in cybersecurity, fraud detection, and the anti-phishing of websites. © 2022 Slovene Society Informatika. All rights reserved. ItemSemantics of intelligent learning environment (ILE) : Cesim simulation(Association for Computing Machinery, 2017) Majeed, Asim; Baadel, Said; Williams, Mike LloydIn the past few decades, learning through simulation and games has evolved in response to a continuous demand for new methods of teaching learners - thus helping academics to deliver their courses effectively. This research paper aims to identify the impact(s) of simulation-based virtual learning environment on postgraduate studentslearning abilities. To achieve the learning objectives; positive relations between simulations and students learning are gathered based on the systematic review of the literature. A successful use of simulations depends on four factors: the role of the instructor, integration in the course, the courses technical specifications and, the practical exposure as an integrative dynamic virtual learning environment. We utilized a quantitative methodology to compile data from online bloggers and analysed the content. The findings in this paper reveal that students from all groups, disaggregated by gender and ethnicity, showed significant learning gains after playing these challenging simulation games. We also present some recommendations that can help alleviate some of the constraints experienced by institutions of higher education that integrate simulations into classrooms. © 2017 ACM. ItemSustaining corporate performance through the happy worker influence(Inderscience Publishers, 2020) Kabene, Stefane; Baadel, SaidHappy workers tend to be more productive. It would be beneficial for managers to understand what factors tend to predict happiness to assess where the most potentially productive worker pools are located around the world. The current study aims to examine the relationship between multiple factors and happiness. Twelve countries have been selected and data relating to nine different factors of each country have been used to determine the sum impact. All variable factors have been statistically correlated to happiness to predict the factor(s) that could be linked strongly with happiness. An intensive statistical analysis has been used to evaluate the significance of these relations. Our paper concludes that happiness without carbon footprint factor is a more accurate measure of personal happiness. The study will benefit companies and human resource managers to understand the impact of norms and cultural diversity in influencing business operations. Copyright © 2020 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. ItemTechnology adoption and diffusion in the gulf : some challenges(Association for Computing Machinery, 2017) Baadel, Said; Majeed, Asim; Kabene, StefaneIn today's technologically advanced world, it is crucial that instructors continuously stay up to date with the ever changing uses of technology in the classroom. Technologies transform the way instructors conduct their lectures and present course material, thereby fundamentally altering the way students learn. It is essential that some challenges such as training needs, funding, and dealing with perceptions are addressed and aligned with one another in order to facilitate technology adoption in institutions of higher education. These challenges are discussed in this paper in the context of gulf countries. © 2017 ACM. ItemTechnology-Enabled Learning (TEL): YouTube as a Ubiquitous Learning Aid(World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte Ltd, 2020-03-01) Mady, Mohamed Ahmed; Baadel, SaidThe use of social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube in the society has become ubiquitous. The advent of communication technologies alongside other unification trends and notions such as media convergence and digital content allow the users of the social network to integrate these networks in their everyday life. There have been several attempts in the literature to investigate and explain the use of social networks such as Facebook and WhatsApp by university students in the Arab region. However, little research has been done on how university students utilise online audiovisual materials in their academic activities in the UAE. This research aims to elucidate the use of YouTube as a learning aid for university students in the UAE. We adopt the technology acceptance model (TAM) as the theoretical framework for this investigation. A quantitative methodology is employed to answer the research question. Primary data consisting of 221 correspondents were analysed, covering patterns of using YouTube as an academic audiovisual learning aid. Statistical techniques including descriptive, correlations, regression tests were used to analyse the data. The study concluded that students use YouTube as a learning tool for their academic studies and enriching their general knowledge; and there is a positive relationship between the use of YouTube videos in academic settings and the students' overall performance. This study can shed light for teachers, curriculum designers, government entities, and other stakeholders on how to best utilise and integrate the online technology - YouTube - as a learning aid. © 2020 World Scientific Publishing Co. ItemWeathering the Storm: Financial Variable as a Key Influence to Entrepreneurial Venture Survival Over Time in Canada(Springer Science and Business Media B.V., 2017) Baadel, Said; Kabene, StefaneEach year numerous new small businesses confidently enter the marketplace but a vast majority of these firms will fail to survive beyond their tenth birthday. Past studies have focused on a variety of external factors such as geographic location and industry size. Despite the effects these variables play over time, a great amount of decisions are made internally and thus it is imperative to consider their impact on survival rates. Young firms with little experience can be heavily disadvantaged when attempting to gain funding within financial markets. Evidence indicates that a vast number of new small firms are forced to rely on equity financing, specifically in the form of internal resources. Beyond retained earnings, firms must rely on social networks in an attempt to solidify relationships with potential investors. Firms require capital to fund future growth but face barriers as turning a profit initially can be quite challenging. This chapter takes an in-depth look into one crucial internal variable, financing, and statistically analyzes its effect on the survival of small entrepreneurial ventures. The objective entails uncovering the causation for such internal downfall and providing such an insight may greatly assist small firms to compete and grow in their respected industries, therefore substantially increasing their chance of survival. © 2017, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. ItemWomen in political positions and countries' level of happiness(Bridgewater State College, 2017) Kabene, Stefane; Baadel, Said; Jiwani, Zahra; Lobo, Vanessa M.This study discusses the relationship between a country's happiness, and relevant country characteristics including gender inequality, levels of corruption, and the percentage of women in parliamentary positions. The aim of the study is to understand how these variables change according to female representation in political leadership. Secondary source data was collected and correlation analyses were performed between the variables using the SPSS statistical program. Results show that the lower the Gender Inequality Index, the higher the percentage of Women in Parliament Positions and the higher the Happiness Index. Furthermore, the results indicate that a higher number of women in leadership position is associated with a lower corruption level and a higher degree of Happiness. Results suggest that the context in which women reach political positions is characterized by less corruption and gender inequality alongside greater happiness in the country. © 2017 Journal of International Women's Studies. ItemWork-life conflict costs: a Canadian perspective(Inderscience Enterprises Ltd., 2020) Baadel, Said; Kabene, Stefane; Majeed, AsimWith current trends showing increased work hours, dual-earner households, and less time spent with family, it is evident that there is a work-life conflict. It is important for human resource managers in Canada to adapt to this changing trend by implementing new policies and programs. Our goal was to discover if there was a correlation between the work-life conflict and absenteeism. Our research study demonstrated that there is no significant correlation between hours worked and time spent with family, but there is a positive significant relationship between time spent working and absenteeism. Our study also indicates a positive correlation between time spent with family and absenteeism. Canadian companies can ease the implications of work-life conflict by adopting some work-life best practices. These practices include reduced work hours and flexible schedules that are already prevalent in European countries. Copyright © 2020 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.