Development and Validation of a Tool to Improve Community Pharmacists’ Surveillance Role in the Safe Dispensing of Herbal Supplements

dc.contributor.authorJairoun, Ammar Abdulrahman
dc.contributor.authorAl Hemyari, Sabaa Saleh
dc.contributor.authorAbdulla, Naseem Mohammed
dc.contributor.authorShahwan, Moyad
dc.contributor.authorJairoun, Maimona
dc.contributor.authorGodman, Brian
dc.contributor.authorEl-Dahiyat, Faris
dc.contributor.authorKurdi, Amanj
dc.date.accessioned2022-08-10T08:57:25Z
dc.date.available2022-08-10T08:57:25Z
dc.date.copyright© 2022
dc.date.issued2022-07-04
dc.descriptionThis article is licensed under Creative Commons License and full text is openly accessible in CUD Digital Repository. The version of the scholarly record of this article is published in Frontiers in Pharmacology (2022), available online at: https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.916223
dc.description.abstractBackground: There has been an appreciable increase in the use of herbal supplements, including immune boosters, during the current COVID-19 pandemic. However, there are concerns with falsified herbal supplements. Objectives: Developed a new questionnaire that can potentially help community pharmacists identify the extent of falsified herbal supplements. Methods: A 9-month cross sectional study was conducted among 500 community pharmacies across United Arab Emirates. A new 5-factor, 24-itmes scale was developed based on current labelling requirements across countries and piloted. This included seven items on identified uses and contraindication, seven items on hazard identification, four items on product identity, three items on packaging and product insert and three items on product handling and storage. The face and content validity of the scale was assessed via the content validity index (CVI). Its construct validity was tested using an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) via principally component analysis (PCA). The model was subsequently confirmed through partial confirmatory factor analysis (PCFA). Its reliability was assessed via test-retest reliability, internal consistency, item internal consistency (IIC), and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Results: The CVI of the finalized questionnaire was 0.843. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy was 0.891, and Bartlett’s test of sphericity indicated significance (p-value < 0.001). Confirmation of the subsequent 5-domains was achieved through PCFA using maximum likelihood analysis with oblimin rotation. The PCFA obtained values was 0.962 for NFI, 0.977 for CFI, and 0.987 for the Tucker Lewis Index. All values were greater than 0.95, and the RMSEA value was 0.03 (i.e., less than 0.06). Consequently, the model had a good fit. All domains demonstrated Cronbach’s alpha coefficients above 0.70, with 0.940 for the full instrument. Meanwhile, all items met the IIC correlation standard of ≥0.40. The instrument presented good ICC statistics of 0.940 (0.928–0.950) as well as statistical significance (p < 0.001). Community pharmacists with more than 10 experience years were more likely to identify falsified herbal supplements compared to those with 1–10 years experience (p < 0.001). Conclusion: This study developed and validated a new instrument to identify safe herbal supplements, which should enhance the role of the community pharmacists in the safe and effective treatment of suitable patients with herbal supplements. Copyright © 2022 Jairoun, Al Hemyari, Abdulla, Shahwan, Jairoun, Godman, El-Dahiyat and Kurdi.
dc.description.sponsorshipAjman University
dc.identifier.citationJairoun, A. A., Al Hemyari, S. S., Abdulla, N. M., Shahwan, M., Jairoun, M., Godman, B., . . . Kurdi, A. (2022). Development and validation of a tool to improve community pharmacists’ surveillance role in the safe dispensing of herbal supplements. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 13 doi:10.3389/fphar.2022.916223
dc.identifier.issn16639812
dc.identifier.urihttps://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.916223
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12519/691
dc.language.isoen_US
dc.publisherFrontiers Media S.A.
dc.relationAuthors Affiliations : Jairoun, A.A., Health and Safety Department, Dubai Municipality, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia; Al Hemyari, S.S., School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia, Pharmacy Department, Emirates Health Services, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; Abdulla, N.M., Health and Safety Department, Dubai Municipality, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, School of Health and Environmental Studies, Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart University (HBMSU), Dubai, United Arab Emirates, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Canadian University Dubai, Dubai, United Arab Emirates; Shahwan, M., Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Ajman University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates, Centre of Medical and Bio-allied Health Sciences Research, Ajman University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates; Jairoun, M., Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Ajman University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates; Godman, B., School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia, Centre of Medical and Bio-allied Health Sciences Research, Ajman University, Ajman, United Arab Emirates, Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences (SIPBS), University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom, Division of Public Health Pharmacy and Management, School of Pharmacy, Sefako -Makgatho Health Sciences University, Pretoria, South Africa; El-Dahiyat, F., Clinical Pharmacy Program, College of Pharmacy, Al Ain University, Al Ain, United Arab Emirates, AAU Health and Biomedical Research Center, Al Ain University, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Kurdi, A., Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences (SIPBS), University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom, Center of Research and strategic studies, Lebanese French University, Erbil, Iraq, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Erbil, Iraq
dc.relation.ispartofseriesFrontiers in Pharmacology; Volume 13
dc.rightsCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0)
dc.rights.holderCopyright : Copyright © 2022 Jairoun, Al Hemyari, Abdulla, Shahwan, Jairoun, Godman, El-Dahiyat and Kurdi.
dc.rights.urihttps://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.subjectcommunity pharmacies
dc.subjectdispensing
dc.subjectfalsiability
dc.subjectherbal supplement adulteration
dc.subjectlabel accuracy
dc.subjectUnited Arab Emirates
dc.titleDevelopment and Validation of a Tool to Improve Community Pharmacists’ Surveillance Role in the Safe Dispensing of Herbal Supplements
dc.typeArticle
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