Department of Environmental Health Sciences

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    Management of risks substances and sustainable development
    (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022-04) Ostad-Ali-Askari, Kaveh
    Sustainable improvement is related to several key variables that count as solid and secure positions. Currently, the group of hazardous substances and inappropriate soils has created one of the most important issues of insecurity against masculinity. Consequently, unsafe substances and hazardous products have been unusually monitored by various countries. Although the safe evacuation of hazardous wastes has consistently remained an issue, the increase in collections and overall estimates of the oppressive situation created in inapplicable periods and the progress of our data and thinking about the contrasting effects of dangerously bad backgrounds on anthropological well-being and conditions has predetermined that the unsafe overflow group will continue during the period of the highest protection programs at the present time. In order to conduct this research, the management of hazardous substances and unsafe goods that are considered as wasteful waste will be properly portrayed in this research. © 2022, The Author(s).
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    Modeling of Surface Flow and Infiltration During Surface Irrigation Advance Based on Numerical Solution of Saint–Venant Equations Using Preissmann's Scheme
    (Birkhauser, 2022) Shayannejad, Mohammad ; Ghobadi, Mahboobe ; Ostad-Ali-Askari, Kaveh
    In this research, a full hydrodynamic model based on the numerical solution of Saint–Venant equations is described to simulate the advance phase of surface irrigation. The full hydrodynamic model is the complete form of Saint–Venant equations. This model is the most complex and accurate among all models and can be applied for analyzing the flow hydraulics and managing surface irrigation. The Preissmann finite difference scheme was used for implicit discretizing terms of the equations. The model presented herein is able to give cumulative infiltration and hydraulic properties including discharge, velocity and depth of flow for any time and distance which can be introduced as an upper boundary condition in water transport models in soil. The model was used to evaluate different situations and soil textures, and the results were compared with results of SIRMOD software, which indicated that relative error was less than 4%. The accuracy of the model was also evaluated in comparison with observed data, and the result showed that the model is able to estimate advance time with normalized root-mean-square error (NRMSE) of less than 8%. Conventional relationships of surface and subsurface shape factor overestimate them by as much as 4.7 and 17.2%, respectively, based on the inflow rate. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
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    Prioritising climate change actions post COVID-19 amongst university students; a Q methodology perspective in the United Arab Emirates
    (Inderscience Enterprises Ltd., 2022) Takshe, Aseel A. ; Lovett, Jon C. ; Stenner, Paul ; Contu, Davide ; Weber, Noelia
    The COVID-19 pandemic caused strict regulations to lower transmission rates. Industries were shut down, people were in lockdown, and travel was curtailed. Restrictions were in effect for an enough period for people's behaviour to change. For example, online meetings rather than needing to travel. This opens the possibility for alterations to the perception that it is possible to commit to effective climate change actions. A Q methodology study was conducted to analyse how 33 university environmental students across the United Arab Emirates perceive the importance of prioritising climate change actions post-pandemic. Statistical analysis yielded four discourses. The first emphasises the need to learn lessons about climate sustainability and sustain them post-pandemic. The second, more pessimistic but advocates preventing a return to pre-pandemic norms by implementing post-pandemic climate change regulations. The third expects economic recovery to take priority over reducing emissions. The fourth raises opportunities and challenges for environmental sustainability post-COVID-19. Copyright © 2022 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
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    Establishment of differential model of recovery treatment for children with minor brain injury and mental disorder syndrome
    (American Institute of Mathematical Sciences, 2021) Zhang, Wei ; Ma, Ai ; Takshe, Aseel ; Muwafak, Bishr Muhamed
    The paper established a differential equation model for 194 children with ADHD in outpatient clinics from September 2019 to August 2020 and compiled a children's clinical diagnostic interview scale based on the fourth edition of the American Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV). The CDIS standard divides it into three phenotypes: attention deficit predominant (ADHD-I), hyperactivity-impulsive predominance (ADHD-HI) and mixed (ADHD-C). The results of the study showed that the distribution of subtypes in the study cases: ADHD-I accounted for 45.9% (89 cases), ADHD-HI accounted for 7.7% (15 cases), ADHD-C accounted for 46.4% (90 cases); ADHD-C: ADHD-I is 1:1. CDIS scale total score: 194 cases of attention deficit symptoms were (7.2 ± 1.4) points, and hyperactivity-impulsive symptoms were (5.4 ± 2.2) points. The frequency of attention deficit symptoms in 194 cases was (79.5 ± 2.9) %, and the frequency of hyperactivity-impulsive symptoms was (59.8 ± 3.5) %. Therefore, it can be concluded that DSM-IV defines three phenotypes in this sample. The proportion of ADHD-HI is low, and the proportion of ADHD-I and ADHD-C is similar; age influences the phenotype distribution. ©2021 the Author(s), licensee AIMS Press.
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    Postoperative drug-resistant bacteria infection in patients with acute Stanford type A aortic dissection under two-fluid numerical simulation model
    (Elsevier B.V., 2021-07) Zang, Sheng ; Zhang, Yu ; Xu, Jiarui ; Du, Yaming ; Issa, Sahar ; Al Dulaimi, Saeed Hameed Kurdi
    Objective: This study was to investigate the characteristics and related factors of postoperative drug-resistant bacteria infection (DRBI) in patients with acute Stanford A aortic dissection (AD) (AAAD) based on a two-fluid numerical simulation model (TFNS model). Methods: 50 patients with AAAD admitted to our hospital from July 2018 to October 2020 were selected as the research objects. The patients were rolled into an infection group and a non-infection group according to whether DRBI occurred after surgery. There were 21 patients in the infected group and 29 patients in the non-infected group. The clinical data of the patients were collected, including preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative conditions. A TFNS model was constructed. The construction of vascular physical model could be completed by the construction of fluid area and solid area. The blood flows through the fluid area and the blood vessel wall was located in the solid area. The model was adopted to study the characteristics of DRBI. The data of the patients were analyzed to explore the relationship of the multi-DRBI to intraoperative blood loss, postoperative complications, intensive care unit (ICU) stay time, invasive procedures, and use of antibiotics. In addition, the multi-factor postoperative multi-DRBI was performed with the regression analysis. Results: There was no significant difference between the infected group and the non-infected group in antibiotics used such as cephalosporin, penicillin, glycopeptide, and quinolones (P > 0.05). The time spent on antibiotics was greatly lower in the infected group than in the non-infected group (P < 0.05). The ICU stay time in the infected group was 17.78 ± 11.55, and that in the non-infected group was 6.67 ± 4.36, without notable difference between the two groups (P < 0.05). In addition, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the time to transfer to the ICU, while there was one case infected with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae. The excessive plasma loss (odds ratio (OR) = 3.823, 95% confidential interval (CI) = 1.643–8.897), renal insufficiency (OR = 1.855, 95% CI = 1.076–3.199), ICU stay time (OR = 5.089, 95% CI = 1.507–17.187), indwelling time of nasal feeding tube (NFT) (OR = 3.225, 95% CI = 1.332–7.807), assisted ventilation (OR = 3.077, 95% CI = 1.640–5.773), tracheal intubation (OR = 5.078, 95% CI = 1.415–18.227), tracheotomy (OR = 0.073, 95% CI = 0.013–0.382), continuous renal replacement (CRR) therapy (OR = 0.111, 95% CI = 0.023–0.476), use time of antibiotics (OR = 1.089, 95% CI = 1.038–1.143) were independent risk factors for postoperative multi-DRBI. Conclusion: postoperative multi-DRBI was characterized by Acinetobacter baumannii infection with the largest proportion, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae; excessive plasma loss, renal insufficiency, ICU stay time, indwelling time of NFT, assisted ventilation, tracheal intubation, tracheotomy, CRR therapy, and use time of antibiotics were all independent risk factors of postoperative multi-DRBI. In the postoperative care of AAAD patients, the inducing factors had to be informed to the patient, and relative measures should be taken to prevention and treatment, which was conductive to reducing the incidence of infection and promote the recovery of AAAD. © 2021 The Author(s)