How do social and economic factors affect carbon emissions? New evidence from five ASEAN developing countries

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Taylor and Francis Ltd.
This study analyzes the long and short-run impacts of social and economic factors on carbon emissions from five developing ASEAN countries during the period 1986–2017. Utilising a Pooled Mean Group Estimator, we find a nonlinear relationship between CO2 emissions and real GDP, confirming the Environmental Kuznets Curve. Our results indicate that energy consumption is the main driver of environmental degradation in these countries; and that FDI and urbanisation reduce carbon emissions. Our research indicates both a long-run and short-run nexus between government education expenditures and CO2 emissions. We conclude with policy suggestions to reduce CO2 emissions while attaining sustainable growth. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
This work is licensed under Creative Commons License and full text is openly accessible in CUD Digital Repository. The version of the scholarly record of this work is published in Economic Research-Ekonomska Istrazivanja (2022), available online at:
ASEAN countries, Carbon emissions, energy consumption, Environmental Kuznets Curve, foreign direct investment, GDP, government education expenditures, urbanisation
Tebourbi, I., Nguyen, A. T. T., Yuan, S. -., & Huang, C. -. (2022). How do social and economic factors affect carbon emissions? new evidence from five ASEAN developing countries. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istrazivanja,