When Smart Cities Get Smarter via Machine Learning: An In-Depth Literature Review

Date
2022
Authors
Band, Shahab S.
Ardabili, Sina
Sookhak, Mehdi
Chronopoulos, Anthony Theodore
Elnaffar, Said
Moslehpour, Massoud
Csaba, Mako
Torok, Bernat
Pai, Hao-Ting
Mosavi, Amir
Journal Title
Journal ISSN
Volume Title
Publisher
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Abstract
The manuscript represents a comeprehensive and systematic literature review on the machine learning methods in the emerging applications of the smart cities. Application domains include the essential aspects of the smart cities including the energy, healthcare, transportation, security, and pollution. The research methodology presents a state-of-the-art taxonomy, evaluation and model performance where the ML algorithms are classified into one of the following four categories: decision trees, support vector machines, artificial neural networks, and advanced machine learning methods, i.e., hybrid methods, ensembles, and Deep Learning. The study found that the hybrid models and ensembles have better performance since they exhibit both a high accuracy and low overall cost. On the other hand, the deep learning (DL) techniques had a higher accuracy than the hybrid models and ensembles, but they demanded relatively higher computation power. Moreover, all these advanced ML methods had a slower processing speed than the single methods. Likewise, the support vector machine (SVM) and decision tree (DT) generally outperformed the artificial neural network (ANN) for accuracy and other metrics. However, since the difference was negligible, it can be concluded that using either of them is appropriate. © 2013 IEEE.
Description
This review is licensed under Creative Commons License and full text is openly accessible in CUD Digital Repository. The version of the scholarly record of this review is published in IEEE Access (2022), accessible online through this link https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3181718
Keywords
artificial intelligence, big data, data science, deep learning, ensemble, machine learning, Smart city, smart grid
Citation
Band, S. S., Ardabili, S., Sookhak, M., Chronopoulos, A. T., Elnaffar, S., Moslehpour, M., . . . Mosavi, A. (2022). When smart cities get smarter via machine learning: An in-depth literature review. IEEE Access, 10, 60985-61015. doi:10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3181718