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Training During the COVID-19 Lockdown: Knowledge, Beliefs, and Practices of 12,526 Athletes from 142 Countries and Six Continents

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dc.contributor.author Washif, Jad Adrian
dc.contributor.author Farooq, Abdulaziz
dc.contributor.author Krug, Isabel
dc.contributor.author Pyne, David B.
dc.contributor.author Verhagen, Evert
dc.contributor.author Taylor, Lee
dc.contributor.author Wong, Del P.
dc.contributor.author Mujika, Iñigo
dc.contributor.author Cortis, Cristina
dc.contributor.author Haddad, Monoem
dc.contributor.author Ahmadian, Omid
dc.contributor.author Al Jufaili, Mahmood
dc.contributor.author Al-Horani, Ramzi A.
dc.contributor.author Al-Mohannadi, Abdulla Saeed
dc.contributor.author Aloui, Asma
dc.contributor.author Ammar, Achraf
dc.contributor.author Arifi, Fitim
dc.contributor.author Aziz, Abdul Rashid
dc.contributor.author Batuev, Mikhail
dc.contributor.author Beaven, Christopher Martyn
dc.contributor.author Beneke, Ralph
dc.contributor.author Bici, Arben
dc.contributor.author Bishnoi, Pallawi
dc.contributor.author Bogwasi, Lone
dc.contributor.author Bok, Daniel
dc.contributor.author Boukhris, Omar
dc.contributor.author Boullosa, Daniel
dc.contributor.author Bragazzi, Nicola
dc.contributor.author Brito, Joao
dc.contributor.author Cartagena, Roxana Paola Palacios
dc.contributor.author Chaouachi, Anis
dc.contributor.author Cheung, Stephen S.
dc.contributor.author Chtourou, Hamdi
dc.contributor.author Cosma, Germina
dc.contributor.author Debevec, Tadej
dc.contributor.author DeLang, Matthew D.
dc.contributor.author Dellal, Alexandre
dc.contributor.author Dönmez, Gürhan
dc.contributor.author Driss, Tarak
dc.contributor.author Duque, Juan David Peña
dc.contributor.author Eirale, Cristiano
dc.contributor.author Elloumi, Mohamed
dc.contributor.author Foster, Carl
dc.contributor.author Franchini, Emerson
dc.contributor.author Fusco, Andrea
dc.contributor.author Galy, Olivier
dc.contributor.author Gastin, Paul B.
dc.contributor.author Gill, Nicholas
dc.contributor.author Girard, Olivier
dc.contributor.author Gregov, Cvita
dc.contributor.author Halson, Shona
dc.contributor.author Hammouda, Omar
dc.contributor.author Hanzlíková, Ivana
dc.contributor.author Hassanmirzaei, Bahar
dc.contributor.author Haugen, Thomas
dc.contributor.author Hébert-Losier, Kim
dc.contributor.author Helú, Hussein Muñoz
dc.contributor.author Herrera-Valenzuela, Tomás
dc.contributor.author Hettinga, Florentina J.
dc.contributor.author Holtzhausen, Louis
dc.contributor.author Hue, Olivier
dc.contributor.author Iacono, Antonio Dello
dc.contributor.author Ihalainen, Johanna K.
dc.contributor.author James, Carl
dc.contributor.author Rensburg, Dina C. Janse van
dc.contributor.author Joseph, Saju
dc.contributor.author Kamoun, Karim
dc.contributor.author Khaled, Mehdi
dc.contributor.author Khalladi, Karim
dc.contributor.author Kim, Kwang Joon
dc.contributor.author Kok, Lian-Yee
dc.contributor.author MacMillan, Lewis
dc.contributor.author Mataruna-Dos-Santos, Leonardo Jose
dc.contributor.author Matsunaga, Ryo
dc.contributor.author Memishi, Shpresa
dc.contributor.author Millet, Grégoire P.
dc.contributor.author Moussa-Chamari, Imen
dc.contributor.author Musa, Danladi Ibrahim
dc.contributor.author Nguyen, Hoang Minh Thuan
dc.contributor.author Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.
dc.contributor.author Owen, Adam
dc.contributor.author Padulo, Johnny
dc.contributor.author Pagaduan, Jeffrey Cayaban
dc.contributor.author Perera, Nirmala Panagodage
dc.contributor.author Pérez-Gómez, Jorge
dc.contributor.author Pillay, Lervasen
dc.contributor.author Popa, Arporn
dc.contributor.author Pudasaini, Avishkar
dc.contributor.author Rabbani, Alireza
dc.contributor.author Rahayu, Tandiyo
dc.contributor.author Romdhani, Mohamed
dc.contributor.author Salamh, Paul
dc.contributor.author Sarkar, Abu-Sufian
dc.contributor.author Schillinger, Andy
dc.contributor.author Seiler, Stephen
dc.contributor.author Setyawati, Heny
dc.contributor.author Shrestha, Navina
dc.contributor.author Suraya, Fatona
dc.contributor.author Tabben, Montassar
dc.contributor.author Trabelsi, Khaled
dc.contributor.author Urhausen, Axel
dc.contributor.author Valtonen, Maarit
dc.contributor.author Weber, Johanna
dc.contributor.author Whiteley, Rodney
dc.contributor.author Zrane, Adel
dc.contributor.author Zerguini, Yacine
dc.contributor.author Zmijewski, Piotr
dc.contributor.author Sandbakk, Øyvind
dc.contributor.author Saad, Helmi Ben
dc.contributor.author Chamari, Karim
dc.date.accessioned 2021-10-26T12:42:22Z
dc.date.available 2021-10-26T12:42:22Z
dc.date.issued 2021
dc.identifier.citation Washif, J.A., Farooq, A., Krug, I., Pyne, D.B., Verhagen, E., Taylor, L. . . . & Chamari, K. (2021). Training During the COVID-19 Lockdown: Knowledge, Beliefs, and Practices of 12,526 Athletes from 142 Countries and Six Continents. Sports Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-021-01573-z en_US
dc.identifier.issn 0112-1642
dc.identifier.uri https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-021-01573-z
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12519/454
dc.description This article is not available at CUD collection. The version of scholarly record of this article is published in Sports Medicine (2021), available online at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-021-01573-z en_US
dc.description.abstract Objective: Our objective was to explore the training-related knowledge, beliefs, and practices of athletes and the influence of lockdowns in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods: Athletes (n = 12,526, comprising 13% world class, 21% international, 36% national, 24% state, and 6% recreational) completed an online survey that was available from 17 May to 5 July 2020 and explored their training behaviors (training knowledge, beliefs/attitudes, and practices), including specific questions on their training intensity, frequency, and session duration before and during lockdown (March–June 2020). Results: Overall, 85% of athletes wanted to “maintain training,” and 79% disagreed with the statement that it is “okay to not train during lockdown,” with a greater prevalence for both in higher-level athletes. In total, 60% of athletes considered “coaching by correspondence (remote coaching)” to be sufficient (highest amongst world-class athletes). During lockdown, < 40% were able to maintain sport-specific training (e.g., long endurance [39%], interval training [35%], weightlifting [33%], plyometric exercise [30%]) at pre-lockdown levels (higher among world-class, international, and national athletes), with most (83%) training for “general fitness and health maintenance” during lockdown. Athletes trained alone (80%) and focused on bodyweight (65%) and cardiovascular (59%) exercise/training during lockdown. Compared with before lockdown, most athletes reported reduced training frequency (from between five and seven sessions per week to four or fewer), shorter training sessions (from ≥ 60 to < 60 min), and lower sport-specific intensity (~ 38% reduction), irrespective of athlete classification. Conclusions: COVID-19-related lockdowns saw marked reductions in athletic training specificity, intensity, frequency, and duration, with notable within-sample differences (by athlete classification). Higher classification athletes had the strongest desire to “maintain” training and the greatest opposition to “not training” during lockdowns. These higher classification athletes retained training specificity to a greater degree than others, probably because of preferential access to limited training resources. More higher classification athletes considered “coaching by correspondence” as sufficient than did lower classification athletes. These lockdown-mediated changes in training were not conducive to maintenance or progression of athletes’ physical capacities and were also likely detrimental to athletes’ mental health. These data can be used by policy makers, athletes, and their multidisciplinary teams to modulate their practice, with a degree of individualization, in the current and continued pandemic-related scenario. Furthermore, the data may drive training-related educational resources for athletes and their multidisciplinary teams. Such upskilling would provide athletes with evidence to inform their training modifications in response to germane situations (e.g., COVID related, injury, and illness). © 2021, The Author(s). en_US
dc.description.sponsorship A specific funding was provided by the National Sports Institute of Malaysia for this study. en_US
dc.language.iso en en_US
dc.publisher Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH en_US
dc.relation Authors Affiliations : Washif, J.A., Sports Performance Division, Institut Sukan Negara Malaysia (National Sports Institute of Malaysia), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Farooq, A., Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence, Doha, Qatar; Krug, I., Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Pyne, D.B., Research Institute for Sport and Exercise, University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia; Verhagen, E., Department of Public and Occupational Health, Amsterdam Collaboration on Health & Safety in Sports, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Taylor, L., School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences, National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine (NCSEM), Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom, Human Performance Research Centre, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia, Sport & Exercise Discipline Group, Faculty of Health, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; Wong, D.P., School of Nursing and Health Studies, The Open University of Hong Kong, Ho Man Tin, Hong Kong; Mujika, I., Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Nursing, University of the Basque Country, Leioa, Basque Country, Spain, Exercise Science Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, School of Kinesiology, Universidad Finis Terrae, Santiago, Chile; Cortis, C., Department of Human Sciences, Society and Health, University of Cassino and Lazio Meridionale, Cassino, Italy; Haddad, M., Physical Education Department, College of Education, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; Ahmadian, O., Medical Committee of Tehran Football Association, Tehran, Iran; Al Jufaili, M., Emergency Medicine Department, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Alkhoudh, Oman; Al-Horani, R.A., Department of Exercise Science, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan; Al-Mohannadi, A.S., World Innovation Summit for Health (WISH), Qatar Foundation, Doha, Qatar; Aloui, A., Physical Activity, Sport & Health Research Unit (UR18JS01), National Sport Observatory, Tunis, Tunisia, High Institute of Sport and Physical Education, University of Gafsa, Gafsa, Tunisia; Ammar, A., Institute of Sport Sciences, Otto-Von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, 39104, Germany, Interdisciplinary Laboratory in Neurosciences, Physiology and Psychology: Physical Activity, Health and Learning (LINP2), UFR STAPS, UPL, Paris Nanterre University, Nanterre, France; Arifi, F., Physical Culture, Sports and Recreation, College Universi, Pristina, Kosovo, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, University of Tetova, Tetovo, North Macedonia; Aziz, A.R., Sport Science and Sport Medicine, Singapore Sport Institute, Sport Singapore, Singapore, Singapore; Batuev, M., Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom; Beaven, C.M., Division of Health, Engineering, Computing and Science, Te Huataki Waiora School of Health, University of Waikato, Tauranga, New Zealand; Beneke, R., Division of Medicine, Training and Health, Institute of Sport Science and Motology, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, Germany; Bici, A., Applied Motion Department, Institute of Sport Research, Sports University of Tirana, Tirana, Albania; Bishnoi, P., Physiotherapy Department, Minerva Punjab Academy and Football Club, Mohali, Punjab, India; Bogwasi, L., Department of Orthopedics, Nyangabgwe Hospital, Francistown, Botswana, Botswana Football Association Medical Committee, Gaborone, Botswana; Bok, D., Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia; Boukhris, O., Physical Activity, Sport & Health Research Unit (UR18JS01), National Sport Observatory, Tunis, Tunisia, High Institute of Sport and Physical Education, University of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia; Boullosa, D., INISA, Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande, Brazil, Sport and Exercise Science, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia; Bragazzi, N., Laboratory for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (LIAM), Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada; Brito, J., Portugal Football School, Portuguese Football Federation, Oeiras, Portugal; Cartagena, R.P.P., Facultad de Ciencias del Deporte, Universidad de Extremadura, Cáceres, Spain; 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Dönmez, G., Department of Sports Medicine, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey; Driss, T., Interdisciplinary Laboratory in Neurosciences, Physiology and Psychology: Physical Activity, Health and Learning (LINP2), UFR STAPS, UPL, Paris Nanterre University, Nanterre, France; Peña Duque, J.D., Al Hilal Football Club, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Eirale, C., Paris Saint Germain FC, Paris, France; Elloumi, M., Health and Physical Education Department, Prince Sultan University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; Foster, C., Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI, United States; Franchini, E., Sport Department, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; Fusco, A., Department of Human Sciences, Society and Health, University of Cassino and Lazio Meridionale, Cassino, Italy; Galy, O., Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Research in Education, EA 7483, University of New Caledonia, Avenue James Cook, Nouméa, 98800, New Caledonia; Gastin, P.B., Sport and Exercise Science, School of Allied Health, Human Services and Sport, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; Gill, N., Division of Health, Engineering, Computing and Science, Te Huataki Waiora School of Health, University of Waikato, Tauranga, New Zealand, New Zealand All Blacks, New Zealand Rugby, Wellington, New Zealand; Girard, O., School of Human Science (Exercise and Sport Science), The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; Gregov, C., Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia; Halson, S., School of Behavioural and Health Sciences, McAuley at Banyo, Australian Catholic University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; Hammouda, O., Interdisciplinary Laboratory in Neurosciences, Physiology and Psychology: Physical Activity, Health and Learning (LINP2), UPL, UFR STAPS, Paris Nanterre University, Nanterre, France, Research Laboratory, Molecular Bases of Human Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, LR19ES13, University of Sfax, Sfax, Tunisia; Hanzlíková, I., Division of Health, Engineering, Computing and Science, Te Huataki Waiora School of Health, University of Waikato, Tauranga, New Zealand; Hassanmirzaei, B., Sports Medicine Research Center, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Iran Football Medical Assessments and Rehabilitation Center, IFMARC, Tehran, Iran; Haugen, T., School of Health Sciences, Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway; Hébert-Losier, K., Division of Health, Engineering, Computing and Science, Te Huataki Waiora School of Health, University of Waikato, Tauranga, New Zealand; Muñoz Helú, H., Department of Economic-Administrative Sciences, Universidad Autónoma de Occidente, Los Mochis, Sinaloa, Mexico; Herrera-Valenzuela, T., Department of Sport Science and Health, Universidad Santo Tomás, Santiago, Chile, University of Santiago of Chile (USACH), Sciences of Physical Activity, Sports and Health School, Santiago, Chile; Hettinga, F.J., Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom; Holtzhausen, L., Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence, Doha, Qatar, Weil-Cornell Medical College in Qatar, Doha, Qatar, Section Sports Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, Department of Exercise and Sports Science, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa; Hue, O., Laboratoire ACTES, UFR-STAPS, Université Des Antilles, Pointe à Pitre, France; Dello Iacono, A., School of Health and Life Sciences, University of the West of Scotland, Hamilton, United Kingdom; Ihalainen, J.K., Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, Biology of Physical Activity, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland; James, C., Sports Performance Division, Institut Sukan Negara Malaysia (National Sports Institute of Malaysia), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Janse van Rensburg, D.C., Section Sports Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa, Medical Board Member, International Netball Federation, Manchester, United Kingdom; 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Matsunaga, R., Antlers Sports Clinic, Kashima, Ibaraki, Japan, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan; Memishi, S., Faculty of Physical Education, University of Tetovo, Tetovo, North Macedonia; Millet, G.P., Institute of Sport Sciences, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland; Moussa-Chamari, I., Physical Education Department, College of Education, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar; Musa, D.I., Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria; Nguyen, H.M.T., Ho Chi Minh City University of Sport, Ho Chi Minh, Viet Nam; Nikolaidis, P.T., School of Health and Caring Sciences, University of West Attica, Attica, Greece; Owen, A., University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France, Seattle Sounders Football Club, Seattle, WA, United States; Padulo, J., Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, Università Degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy; Pagaduan, J.C., School of Health Sciences, College of Health and Medicine, University of Tasmania, Launceston, TAS, Australia; 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Zerguini, Y., FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence Algiers, Algiers, Algeria, Medical Committee, Confederation of African Football, Giza, Egypt; Zmijewski, P., Jozef Pilsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland; Sandbakk, Ø., Centre for Elite Sports Research, Department of Neuromedicine and Movement Science, Norwegian, University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway; Ben Saad, H., Laboratoire de Recherche “Insuffisance Cardiaque” (LR12SP09), Hôpital Farhat HACHED, Université de Sousse, Sousse, Tunisia, Laboratoire de Physiologie, Faculté de Médicine de Sousse, Université de Sousse, Sousse, Tunisia; Chamari, K., Aspetar, Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence, Doha, Qatar
dc.relation.ispartofseries Sports Medicine;
dc.rights Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License
dc.rights.uri http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.title Training During the COVID-19 Lockdown: Knowledge, Beliefs, and Practices of 12,526 Athletes from 142 Countries and Six Continents en_US
dc.type Article en_US
dc.rights.holder Copyright : © 2021, The Author(s)


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