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    Spatialoral graph neural network based on node attention
    (Sciendo, 2022) Li, Qiang ; Wan, Jun ; Zhang, Wucong ; Kweh, Qian Long
    Recently, the method of using graph neural network based on skeletons for action recognition has become more and more popular, due to the fact that a skeleton can carry very intuitive and rich action information, without being affected by background, light and other factors. The spatialoral graph convolutional neural network (ST-GCN) is a dynamic skeleton model that automatically learns spatialoral model from data, which not only has stronger expression ability, but also has stronger generalisation ability, showing remarkable results on public data sets. However, the ST-GCN network directly learns the information of adjacent nodes (local information), and is insufficient in learning the relations of non-adjacent nodes (global information), such as clapping action that requires learning the related information of non-adjacent nodes. Therefore, this paper proposes an ST-GCN based on node attention (NA-STGCN), so as to solve the problem of insufficient global information in ST-GCN by introducing node attention module to explicitly model the interdependence between global nodes. The experimental results on the NTU-RGB+D set show that the node attention module can effectively improve the accuracy and feature representation ability of the existing algorithms, and obviously improve the recognition effect of the actions that need global information. © 2021 Qiang Li et al., published by Sciendo 2021.
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    Cross-Market Price Mechanism Between the US Copper Futures Market and a Newly Proposed Chinese Dollar Index
    (Springer Science and Business Media B.V., 2017) Gurrib, Ikhlaas
    Recent changes in China’s copper demand have lately received much attention due to its close relationship to the country’s economic activity. Although an emerging market, China accounts for around 40 % of the world’s copper demand and the USA is the third biggest market for exports, making it imperative to assess the relationship between copper futures prices and a newly proposed Chinese dollar index. The purpose of this study is to analyse if changes in the copper futures prices can be used as a market timing tool to predict movements in the Chinese dollar index, and vice versa. To enhance the predictive market timing ability, an adaptive relative strength index model is used to track changes in market conditions better. The analysis is conducted using both daily and weekly data over the June 2007–December 2015 period. Findings will suggest if the technical analysis tool can be used to forecast copper prices based on changes in the Chinese dollar index, or if accurate forecasts can be made on the Chinese dollar index based on movements in copper’s prices, over different frequency intervals. More importantly, this would have policy implications in that it would reveal whether global copper prices can be affected by Chinese Yuan’s movements against other major global currencies, suggesting a need for regulatory bodies to relook at the effect of non-fundamental factors on commodity and currency markets. © 2017, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
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    Business Cycle Forecasts and Futures Volatility
    (Springer Science and Business Media B.V., 2017) Belhaj, Hanene ; Larbi, Dorra
    This chapter assesses the extent to which the US business cycle is affected by fluctuations in futures price while controlling for other macroeconomic and financial variables. We examine the usefulness of futures volatility to predict whether or not the US economy will be in a recession. Our study builds on two research veins. The first is comprised of many studies that attempt to predict business cycles by using a range of economic variables. Many of these studies emphasize the role of financial variables in macroeconomic forecasts (Estrella and Mishkin, Review of Economics and Statistics, 80(1):45–61, 1998). This role has been certainly exacerbated during the recent financial crisis of 2007–2009. The second vein originates within the literature which widely recognizes the role of financial variables such as prices of financial instruments as leading indicators (Estrella and Mishkin, Review of Economics and Statistics, 80(1):45–61, 1998). In US data for example, equity returns and the short-term interest lead GDP growth by one or two quarters (Backus et al., Asset prices in business cycle analysis (manuscript), 2007). Commodities, combined with stocks, are one of these financial instruments that were involved in the macroeconomic forecasts. Our study examines futures volatility as predictors of US recessions. The volatility of this instrument could be an indicator of the economic situation. This study aims at either confirming or invalidating that periods of economic downturns are characterized by a high volatility in the index futures market. © 2017, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
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    The role of controlling shareholders in influencing firm efficiency: a case of Taiwanese electronics firms
    (Inderscience Publishers, 2022) Ting, Irene Wei Kiong ; Ahmad, Norazlin ; Gurrib, Ikhlaas ; Bhaskaran, Rajesh Kumar
    This study examines how controlling shareholders affected efficiency in Taiwanese electronics firms for the period of 2005–2017. This study measures firm efficiency using a dynamic data envelopment analysis model, which returns scores ranging from zero (not efficient) to one (efficient). Our regression results find that controlling shareholders’ levels of shareholdings have significant negative effects on firm efficiency when their shareholding levels are low. However, there is a positive relationship between controlling shareholders’ levels of shareholding and firm efficiency when the percentage of their shareholdings is high. These nonlinear results are also confirmed when we use board seat control rights held by the controlling shareholders. This study contributes to the field of corporate governance, specifically in the application of agency theory related to principal-principal relationships. Overall, findings suggest policy-makers should not consider solely controlling shareholders’ levels of shareholdings, but also their board seat control rights. Copyright © 2022 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
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    Adoption of eco-friendly cars: mediated effects of attitude and moderation role of gender diversity across UAE market: application of extended version of theory of planned behaivour
    (Springer, 2022) Khan, Hashim ; Saif-ur-Rehman ; Qadus, Abdul ; Jan, Sharif Ullah ; Aamir, Alamzeb
    It is expected that the widespread adoption of eco-friendly vehicles (EFVs) could contribute to the mitigation problem of sustainability. Though EFVs have been developed rapidly with government support, yet they are a relatively small share in the UAE, and the mainstream of consumers are reluctant to adopt them. Therefore, for the effective growth of EFVs, we applied the “Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)” in combination with environment knowledge (EK) and environment concern (EC) to explore EFVs purchase intentions (EVPI) in a developing economy of UAE. The findings show that EK, EC, attitude, and perceived behavioral controls (PBC) are positive and significant determinants of EVPI. We also find positive and significant impacts of EK and EC on EVPI. Further, it is found that the introduction of attitude as intermediation improves the relationship between EC, and EK, and EVPI. Lastly, findings also depict the association between attitude and PBC, and purchase intention is moderated by gender (female). This study helps to increase the economic method of the country. Also, it helps in finding of behavior patterns by using the TPB. Importantly, we provide evidence supporting the positive and significant association between EVPI and EFV in UAE. As far as practical implications are concerned, the study provides useful insight in the context of the adoption EFVs, and other countries in the region can benefit from the findings. Particularly, the antecedent factors may specify aims for precise practical intrusions intended to improve pro-environmental behavior. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.