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    Ovary Cancer Diagnosing Empowered with Machine Learning
    (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022) Taleb, Nasser ; Mehmood, Shahid ; Zubair, Muhammad ; Naseer, Iftikhar ; Mago, Beenu Skyline University Colleg ; Nasir, Muhammad Umar
    A high mortality rate is associated with ovarian cancer, one of the most common types of cancers in women. Ovarian cancer refers to a group of disorders that develop in the ovaries and spread to the fallopian tubes and peritoneum. Treatment is most effective when ovarian cancer is discovered in its early stages. Machine learning has recently demonstrated that it is capable of better identifying ovarian cancer and its stages. Most modern research studies on ovarian cancer use a single classification model, leading to poor performance in diagnosis. For the detection of ovarian cancer, the highly sophisticated and efficient machine learning algorithms Support vector machine (SVM) and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) are employed in this study. Before diagnosing illness, the suggested approach can optimize and standardize data. Experimental results show that SVM has outperformed KNN in both training and validation performance and achieved an accuracy of 98.1% 97.16% for training and validation respectively. If used in medical diagnosis systems, the proposed model can significantly improve the accuracy of ovarian cancer detection leading to effective treatment and an increase in patient survival rates. © 2022 IEEE.
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    A Proposed Architecture for Traffic Monitoring Control System via LiFi Technology in Smart Homes
    (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022) Asif, Muhammad ; Khan, Tahir Abbas ; Taleb, Nasser ; Said, Raed A. ; Siddiqui, Shahan Yamin ; Batool, Ghanwa
    Realizing secure and fast communication in smart homes is still a challenging task due to slow and imperfect information reception from end nodes for proper traffic control. The image data captured through high-resolution cameras demand high-speed data link nodes having a capacity of more than 10 Gbps. The advancement in technologies makes it possible to send accurate and timely images data to store in clouds. LiFi is a wireless technology that uses lights for data transmission between devices. The speed of LiFi is 100 times greater than Conventional WiFi Technology. A Proposed Architecture for Traffic Monitoring Control systems via LiFi Technology in Smart Homes is presented in this paper. The proposed model is the multi-purposed model like we can control, manage and identify traffic vehicles on time. © 2022 IEEE.
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    Machine Learning Models for the Classification of Skin Cancer
    (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2022) Arooj, Sahar ; Khan, Muhammad Farhan ; Khan, Muhammad Adnan ; Khan, Muhammad Saleem ; Taleb, Nasser
    Skin cancer is a serious illness that requires early identification in order to improve survival rates. Deep learning algorithms for computerized skin cancer detection have now become popular in recent years. These models may increase their performance by having access to additional data, and their prime objective is image categorization. This activity is extremely useful in the realm of health since it may help physicians and experts make the best decisions and accurately assess a patient's condition. Early detection of skin cancer helps patients to receive appropriate treatment and so enhance their survival rate. This proposed methodology is generated to detect and classify skin cancers. In this study, we employed four pre-trained deep learning models (Squeeze net, Alex net, Res net 101, VGG 19) for the classification of four types of skin cancers in more than 6000 skin images including actinic keratoses, intraepithelial carcinoma Bowen's disease (akiec), basal cell carcinoma (bcc), benign keratosis-like lesions (bkl) and melanocytic nevi (nv). The objective was the identification of the best model in the classification of these breast cancer images with highest accuracy. Experimental results reveal that the Squeeze net model achieved an accuracy of 92.5% which is highest when compared with all other models while Alex net, Res net 101, VGG 19 acquired 91.1%, 83.2%, and 90.4% respectively. © 2022 IEEE.
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    Using blockchain to ensure trust between donor agencies and ngos in under-developed countries
    (MDPI AG, 2021-08) Rehman, Ehsan ; Khan, Muhammad Asghar ; Soomro, Tariq Rahim ; Taleb, Nasser ; Afifi, Mohammad A. ; Ghazal, Taher M.
    Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in under-developed countries are receiving funds from donor agencies for various purposes, including relief from natural disasters and other emergencies, promoting education, women empowerment, economic development, and many more. Some donor agencies have lost their trust in NGOs in under-developed countries, as some NGOs have been involved in the misuse of funds. This is evident from irregularities in the records. For instance, in education funds, on some occasions, the same student has appeared in the records of multiple NGOs as a beneficiary, when in fact, a maximum of one NGO could be paying for a particular beneficiary. Therefore, the number of actual beneficiaries would be smaller than the number of claimed beneficiaries. This research proposes a blockchain-based solution to ensure trust between donor agencies from all over the world, and NGOs in under-developed countries. The list of National IDs along with other keys would be available publicly on a blockchain. The distributed software would ensure that the same set of keys are not entered twice in this blockchain, preventing the problem highlighted above. The details of the fund provided to the student would also be available on the blockchain and would be encrypted and digitally signed by the NGOs. In the case that a record inserted into this blockchain is discovered to be fake, this research provides a way to cancel that record. A cancellation record is inserted, only if it is digitally signed by the relevant donor agency. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
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    Software defect prediction using ensemble learning: A systematic literature review
    (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2021) Matloob, Faseeha ; Ghazal, Taher M. ; Taleb, Nasser ; Aftab, Shabib ; Ahmad, Munir ; Khan, Muhammad Adnan
    Recent advances in the domain of software defect prediction (SDP) include the integration of multiple classification techniques to create an ensemble or hybrid approach. This technique was introduced to improve the prediction performance by overcoming the limitations of any single classification technique. This research provides a systematic literature review on the use of the ensemble learning approach for software defect prediction. The review is conducted after critically analyzing research papers published since 2012 in four well-known online libraries: ACM, IEEE, Springer Link, and Science Direct. In this study, five research questions covering the different aspects of research progress on the use of ensemble learning for software defect prediction are addressed. To extract the answers to identified questions, 46 most relevant papers are shortlisted after a thorough systematic research process. This study will provide compact information regarding the latest trends and advances in ensemble learning for software defect prediction and provide a baseline for future innovations and further reviews. Through our study, we discovered that frequently employed ensemble methods by researchers are the random forest, boosting, and bagging. Less frequently employed methods include stacking, voting and Extra Trees. Researchers proposed many promising frameworks, such as EMKCA, SMOTE-Ensemble, MKEL, SDAEsTSE, TLEL, and LRCR, using ensemble learning methods. The AUC, accuracy, F-measure, Recall, Precision, and MCC were mostly utilized to measure the prediction performance of models. WEKA was widely adopted as a platform for machine learning. Many researchers showed through empirical analysis that features selection, and data sampling was necessary pre-processing steps that improve the performance of ensemble classifiers. © 2013 IEEE.